1) REVERSE OSMOSIS

Producing Drinking Water Using Reverse Osmosis

Although Reverse Osmosis seems like a complex system it is really a simple and straightforward water purification process. And it’s not a new process. High-pressure (pump driven) reverse osmosis systems have been used for years to desalinate water – to convert brackish or seawater to drinking water and to purify municipal water. Municipal water is supplied as a utility water this means its used to wash your car, water your garden and is not necessarily healthy water to drink. Having a better understanding of how a reverse osmosis system works will eliminate the mystery and confusion you may feel when you look at a reverse osmosis system — with its many coloured tubes and multitude of filters.

The most important points to remember:

  • All RO Systems work the same way.
  • Most RO (Reverse Osmosis) systems look alike.
  • All RO Systems have the same basic components.
  • The real difference is the quality of the filters and membranes inside the RO as well as  the quality of the plastics used in the manufacturing of domestic RO systems. Using the wrong plastics can lead to unwanted and dangerous chemicals leaching into your purified water.

 

How the Reverse Osmosis System Works?

Reverse Osmosis is a process in which dissolved inorganic solids are removed from a solution (such as water). This is accomplished by household water pressure pushing the tap water through a semi permeable membrane. The membrane allows only the water to pass through, not the impurities or contaminates. These impurities and contaminates are flushed down the drain.

Ultimately, the factors that affect the performance of a Reverse Osmosis System are:

  • Incoming water pressure
  • Water Temperature
  • Type and number of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the tap water
  • The quality of the filters and membranes used in the RO System

Diagram of a Reverse Osmosis Membrane:

reverse-osmosis-membrane

What does a Reverse Osmosis System Remove?

A reverse osmosis membrane will remove impurities and particles larger than .001 microns.

reverse-osmosis-informative-image

  •  Contaminants Removed by Reverse Osmosis The following inorganic contaminants will be removed or reduced to safe levels by filtration with reverse osmosis membranes, such as found in our reverse osmosis systems.
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Contaminant MCL (mg/L) Source/Industrial Occurrence Health Effects Treatment

 

Antimony 0.005 Coal and ore mining, petroleum refining, paint and ink formulation, textile mills, explosives mfg., foundries timber product processing, iron and steel mfg. as a hardening alloy. Carcinogen. Irritation to eyes and skin tissue. Reverse osmosis, coagulation and filtration, distillation.
Arsenic *0.05*USEPA to consider MCL between 0.002 to 0.02 mg/L Defoliants, soil sterilants, wood treatment compounds, used in textile mills, paint and ink formulation, petroleum refining, porcelain enameling, pharmaceutical manufacturing, ore mining and dressing, foundries and metals manufacturing. Malignant tumors or skin and lungs. Affects nervous system. Reverse osmosis, activated alumina, ion exchange, lime softening, coagulation with filtration distillation.
Asbestos 7 MF/L Natural mineral deposits, insulation, fireproofing materials and cement pipe. Probable cause of cancer. Reverse osmosis, filtration, distillation.
Barium 2.0 Natural forming ore as barite and witherite in GA, MO, AR, KY, CA, NV, Canada and Mexico. Affects nervous and circulatory systems. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, lime softening, distillation.
Berrylium 0.004 Natural ore in CO, ME, NH, SD, Canada. Nonferrous metals manufacturing as a copper alloy, iron and steel manufacturing, ore and coal mining, textile mills petroleum refining, paint and ink formulation. Carcinogen. Effects skin and lung tissues. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, activated alumina, coagulation and filtration, lime softening, distillation.
Cadmium 0.005 Natural mineral deposits. Used in leather and tanning and iron and steel manufacturing, coal mining, textile mills, gum and wood chemicals, pharamacuetical manufacturing, petroleum refining, rubber processing and foundries. Kidney disorders, bronchitus, anemia. Reverse osmosis, Ion exchange, coagulation with filtration, lime softening, distillation, corrosion control.
Chromium
(total)
0.1 Natural mineral deposits. Used in leather and tanning and iron and steel manufacturing, coal mining, textile mills, gum and wood chemicals, pharmaceutical manufacturing, petroleum refining, rubber processing and foundries Liver and kidney disorders. Affects skin and digestive system. Reverse osmosis, Coagulation with filtration, ion exchange, lime softening, distillation.
Copper 1.3 (action level) Formation occurs during corrosion of interior household and building pipes. Stomach and intestinal distress. Wilson’s Disease. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation.
Cyanide 0.2 Leather tanning and finishing, iron and steel manufacturing, paint and ink formulation, extermination materials, explosives manufacturing. Nervous system, endocrine system. Reverse osmosis, chlorination, ion exchange.
Fluoride 4.0 Natural forming material deposits, additive to public supply as fluorsilicic acid, sodium silicofluoride or sodium fluoride at a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluorosis or mottling, a brown discoloration of the teeth. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation, activated alumina.
Lead 0.015 (action level) Solder and other plumbing products, batteries, gasoline as tetraethyl lead. Used in explosives manufacturing, textile mills, petroleum refining, paint and ink formation, rubber processing, porcelain enameling and foundries. Affects nervous and reproductive systems and kidneys. Causes hypertension. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, coagulation with filtration, distillation, corrosion control, carbon.
Mercury 0.002 Fungicides, bactericides in antifouling paints and mildew-proofing preparations. Also found in thermometers and barometers. Used in coal mining, textile mills, timber product processing, petroleum refining, rubber processing, paint and ink formulation. Affects nervous system and kidneys. Reverse osmosis, granular activated carbon, lime softening, coagulation with filtration and with powdered activated carbon, distillation.
Nickel 0.1 Natural ore in Ontario, Canada, iron and steel manufacturing as low alloy steel, nonferrous manufacturing as copper and brass. Alkaline storage batteries, electroplating, foundries, timber product processing, petroleum refining. Carcinogen, dermatitis. Affects gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. Reverse osmosis, lime softening, ion exchange, distillation.
Nitrate (as N) 10 Fertilization, sewage. Natural forming mineral deposits, feed-lot runoff. Methemo-globinemia (“Blue Baby” Syndrome) Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation
Nitrite (as N) 1.0 Fertilization, sewage. Natural forming mineral deposits, feed-lot runoff. Methemo-globinemia (“Blue Baby” Syndrome) Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation
Selenium 0.05 Natural mineral deposits. Commonly found as a trace element in animal feeds. Used in textile mills, timber processing, porcelain enameling, pharmaceutical manufacturing and foundries. Affects nervous system. Causes irriation to the mucous Reverse osmosis, distillation, lime softening, coagulation with filtration, activated alumina.
Sodium none
(20 mg/L recommended level)
Geological, road salting. Possible increased blood pressure in suseptible individuals. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation.
Thallium 0.002 Pesticides, nonferrous metals as an alloy, photo electric applications, semi conductor processing, petroleum refining, paint and ink formulation. Skin irritation. Reverse osmosis, activated alumina, ion exchange, distillation.

The following organic contaminants, if present in your drinking water in normally found concentrations, will be removed or reduced to safe levels by filtration with granular activated carbon, such as found in our reverse osmosis systems.

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Contaminant MCL
(mg/L)
Source/Industrial Occurrence Health
Effects
Treatment

 

Acrylamide TT Flocculents in sewage and wastewater treatment. Affects nervous system. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Benzene 0.005 Used in fuels (leaking underground storage tanks). Used as a solvent in manufacturing pharmaceuticals, plastics, pesticides and paints. Leukemia, anemia and possibly cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Carbon tetrachloride 0.005 Used as a cleaning agent and in manufacturing of refrigerants, fumigants, propellants, resins, paint and ink formulation. Affects nervous system, liver and digestive system. Causes cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Dibromochl-oropropane (DBCP) 0.0002 Soil fumigant on soybeans, cotton; discontinued in 1977. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Dichloro-methane 0.005 Paint removers, solvent degreasing, aerosol sprays, fumigants, plastics manufacturing, photographic film, textile and leather coatings, foam products. Carcinogen Granular activated carbon.
Di(ethylhexyl) adipate 0.4 Plasticizer and polymer production, lubricants. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Di(ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.006 Plasticizer in resins and elastomers Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
p-Dichloro-benzene 0.075 Used in moth repellent, germicides, pesticides and soil fumigants. Affects nervous system, kidneys and liver. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
o-Dichloro-benzene 0.6 Used in manufacturing of fumigants, insecticides, waxes, resins, rubber and asphalt. Affects lungs, liver and kidneys. Granular activated carbon.
1,2-Dichloroethane 0.005 Used in manufacturing of gasoline, paint, varnish, metal degreasing and insecticide fumigants. Causes damage to kidneys and liver, can cause nausea. Granular activated carbon.
1,1-Dichloroethylene 0.007 Used in manufacturing of dyes, plastics, perfumes and adhesives. Affects kidneys and liver, can cause nausea. Granular activated carbon.
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 0.07 Used as an industrial solvent in manufacturing of dyes, perfumes and lacquers. Affects liver, and nervous and circulatory systems. Granular activated carbon.
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 0.1 Used as an industrial solvent in manufacturing of dyes, perfumes, lacquers and rubber. Affects liver, and nervous and circulatory systems. Granular activated carbon.
1,2-Dichloropropane 0.005 Used in insecticidal fumigants, dry cleaning fluids and in manufacturing of resins, waxes and petroleum products. Affects lungs, liver and kidneys. Granular activated carbon.
Epichlorohydrin TT Epoxy resins and coatings. Flocculents used in treatment. Affects kidneys, liver and lungs. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Ethylbenzene 0.7 Used in manufacturing of gasoline, insecticides and asphalt. Affects nervous system, liver and kidneys. Granular activated carbon.
Ethylene dibromide (EDB) 0.00005 Used as gasoline additive and soil fumigant. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Hexachloro-benzene 0.001 Fungicide/wood preservative Digestive system, cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Hexachloro-cyclopentadiene 0.05 Pesticides, fungicides, dyes and resins. Skin irritant, lungs and digestive system. Granular activated carbon.
Monochloro-benzene 0.001 Fungicide/wood preservative Digestive system, cancer. Granular activated carbon.
PAHs – Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzo(a) Pyrene 0.0002 Coal and core processing, heat/power processing, shale refining Cancer Granular activated carbon.
Styrene 0.1 Used in manufacturing of plastics, resins and foams. Affects nervous system, liver and kidneys. Granular activated carbon.
2,3,7,8-TC-DD (Dioxin) 3×10-8 Defoliants/herbicides Carcinogen, mutagen, tetragen Granular activated carbon.
Tetrachloro-ethylene (PCE) 0.005 Used in dry cleaning, degreasing agent for metals, for manufacturing rubber, waxes, paints and inks. Affects nervous system. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Toulene 1.0 Used in gasoline, paints, thinners, lacquers and adhesives Affects nervous system, liver and kidneys. Causes narcosis. Irritant to respiratory system. Granular activated carbon.
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 0.009 Insecticides, lubricants, dye processing, transformer fluid Digestive system and lungs Granular activated carbon.
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 0.2 Used in manufacturing of pesticides, plastics and metals. Affects nervous system. Causes narcosis and probably cancer. Granular activated carbon.
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 0.005 Solvent used in oils, fats, waxes and resins, rubber processing. Immune system. Granular activated carbon.
Trichloroethylene 0.005 Used in dry cleaning and as a degreasing agent. Used in manufacturing of rubber, paints, adhesives and resins, oils, and fumigants. Irritant of body tissue. Affects nervous system. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Total trihalomethanes (THMs) – Chloroform, Bromoform, Bromodichloro-methane, Dibromochloro-methane 0.1 Formation occurs when water containing organic matter is treated with chlorine. Affects nervous system and muscles. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Vinyl chloride 0.002 Used as a plastic adhesive and refrigerant, the main component of PVC pipe. Affects nervous system. Probable cause of cancer. Granular activated carbon.
Xylenes (total) 10 Used in manufacturing of paint, ink, petroleum and detergents. Affects nervous system, kidneys, lungs, liver and mucous membranes. Granular activated carbon.

Typical Contaminant Removal

Contaminant

% Reduction

Contaminant

% Reduction

  Algae

99.9%

  Mercury

  93-98%

  Aluminum

  96-99%

  Mold

  99.9%

  Ameobic Cysts

  >99%

  Nickel

  93-98%

  Arsenic

  93-98%

  Nitrate

  85-90%

  Asbestoes

  >99%

  Phosphate

  93-98%

  Atrazine

  95%

  Potassium

  94-97%

  Bacteria

  >99%

  Protozoa

  >99%

  Barium

  93-98%

  Radioactivity

  93-98%

  Calcium

  93-98%

  Sediment

  >99%

  Chloride

  95-98%

  Selenium

  94-96%

  Chlorine

  99.5%

  Silicate

  85-90%

  Chromate

  90-95%

  Silver

  93-98%

  Copper

  93-98%

  Sodium

  90-95%

  Cryptosporidium Cysts

  99.9%

  Strontium

  96-98%

  Cyanide

  90-95%

  Sulfate

  93-98%

  Flouride

  95-98%

  Thiosulfate

  96-99%

  Giardia Lamblia Cysts

  99.9%

  Trihalomethene (THM)

  98%

  Lead

  93-98%

  Total Volatile Organics

  95%

  Manganese

  93-98%

  Zinc

  93-98%

  Magnesium

  93-98%

  2,4-D

  95%

This list represents only a few of the contaminants removed or reduced by any 7 or 8-Stage Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water System. Results may vary depending upon water conditions, temperature, pressure and whether proper routine maintenance has been performed on the system at appropriate intervals.

2) KDF/CARBON

Kinetic Degradation Fluxion (KDF-55) Water Filters

Kinetic Degradation Fluxion (KDF) is a high-purity copper-zinc formulation that uses a basic chemical process known as redox (oxidation/reduction) to remove chlorine, lead, mercury, iron, and hydrogen sulfide from water supplies. The process also has a mild anti-bacterial, algaecitic, and fungicitic, effect and may reduce the accumulation of lime scale.KDF process media is used in pre-treatment and primary treatment applications to supplement or replace existing technologies in order to extend system life and to reduce heavy metal contamination, chlorine and hydrogen sulfide. It is often combined with other technologies to achieve superior overall results. Because of its effectiveness at higher water temperatures, it is often used on shower water filtration systems to remove chlorine and other contaminants.The technology was developed by KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc. in the mid 1980s and was patented in 1987. KDF filter media meets EPA and Food and Drug Administration standards for levels of zinc and copper in potable water, and is certified by NSF International to its Standard 61 for drinking water.
How it Works Applications
In short, the KDF redox process works by exchanging electrons with contaminants. This “give and take” of electrons converts many contaminants into harmless components. During this reaction, electrons are transferred between molecules, and new elements are created. Some harmful contaminants are changed into harmless components. Free chlorine, for instance, is changed into benign, water-soluble chloride salt, which is then carried harmlessly through the water supply. Many heavy metals such as copper, lead, mercury and others, react and bond with the KDF medium’s surface, thus being effectively removed from the water supply. KDF filters are used most often in conjunction with an activated carbon filter. They prolong the life and increase the effectiveness of carbon filters by reducing chlorine build-up. They also supplement the activated carbon filters by removing heavy metals, something that carbon-based filters are not very effective at removing.KDF is also frequently found in home showerhead filters because of its effectiveness at higher operating temperatures and flow rates.KDF Copper-Zinc Media
What Contaminants Does KDF Remove?

 

KDF process media will reduce or remove chlorine, iron, hydrogen sulfide, lead, mercury, magnesium, and chromium, and may inhibit the growth of bacteria, algae, and fungi. Redox media remove up to 99% of water-soluble cations (positively-charged ions) of lead, mercury, copper, nickel, chromium, and other dissolved metals. While removal rates depend on a number of factors, more than 99% of chlorine is removed by KDF in home water treatment systems (90% in shower water filters due to high flow rate).Note: Chart below is based on KDF-55 combined with basic activated carbon filter.

Bacteria

Bad Tastes
& Odors

Chlorine

Fluoride

Heavy
Metals

Hydrogen sulfide

Nitrates

Radon

Sediment

Viruses

VOC’s

= Effectively Removes         = Significantly Reduces         = Minimal or No Removal

 

Advantages Disadvantages
  • effective removal of wide range of contaminants
  • cost effective
  • extend life and efficiency of carbon (GAC) filters
  • remains effective at higher water temperatures
  • best when combined with other filtration technologies, such as activated carbon, for full spectrum protection
Frequently Asked Questions About KDF Filtration
1. What is KDF?
Kinetic Degradation Fluxion (KDF) is a high-purity copper-zinc formulation that uses a basic chemical process known as redox (oxidation/reduction) to remove chlorine, lead, mercury, iron, and hydrogen sulfide from water supplies.2. How does KDF Work?
In short, the KDF redox process works by exchanging electrons with contaminants. This “give and take” of electrons converts many contaminants into harmless components. During this reaction, electrons are transferred between molecules, and new elements are created. Some harmful contaminants are changed into harmless components. Others are electrochemically bound to the KDF media.3. What Contaminants Does KDF Remove?
KDF process media works to reduce or remove chlorine, iron, hydrogen sulfide, lead, mercury, magnesium, and chromium. It may also inhibit the growth of bacteria, algae, and fungi. Redox media removes up to 99% of water-soluble cations (positively-charged ions) of lead, mercury, copper, nickel, chromium, and other dissolved metals. More than 99% of chlorine is generally removed.4. Why is KDF used in shower water filters?
KDF is frequently found in home showerhead filters because of its effectiveness at higher operating temperatures and flow rates.

Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Carbon Block Filters

Carbon is a substance that has a long history of being used to adsorb impurities and is perhaps the most powerful adsorbent known to man. One pound of carbon contains a surface area of roughly 125 acres and can adsorb literally thousands of different chemicals. Activated carbon is carbon which has a slight electro-positive charge added to it, making it even more attractive to chemicals and impurities. As the water passes over the positively charged carbon surface, the negative ions of the contaminants are drawn to the surface of the carbon granules.Activated carbon filters used for home water treatment typically contain either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered block carbon. Although both are effective, carbon block filters generally have a higher contaminant removal ratio. The two most important factors affecting the efficiency of activated carbon filtration are the amount of carbon in the unit and the amount of time the contaminant spends in contact with it. The more carbon the better. Similarly, the lower the flow rate of the water, the more time that contaminants will be in contact with the carbon, and the more adsorption that will take place. Particle size also affects removal rates.Activated carbon filters are usually rated by the size of the particles they are able to remove, measured in microns, and generally range from 50 microns (least effective) down to 0.5 microns (most effective).A typical counter-top or under-the-counter filter system has from 12 to 24 ounces of activated carbon. The most common carbon types used in water filtration are bituminous, wood, and coconut shell carbons. While coconut shell carbon typically costs 20% more than the others, it is generally regarded as the most effective of the three. All of our activated carbon filters use coconut shell carbon.
How it Works Applications
There are two principal mechanisms by which activated carbon removes contaminants from water; adsorption, and catalytic reduction, a process involving the attraction of negatively-charged contaminant ions to the positively-charged activated carbon. Organic compounds are removed by adsorption and residual disinfectants such as chlorine and chloramines are removed by catalytic reduction. Activated carbon filtration is very common in a number of home water treatment systems. It can be used as a standalone filter to reduce or eliminate bad tastes and odors, chlorine, and many organic contaminants in municipal (pre-treated or chlorinated) water supplies to produce a significantly improved drinking water. It is also very commonly used as a pre-treatment as part of a reverse osmosis system to reduce many organic contaminants, chlorine, and other items that could foul the reverse osmosis membrane. 0.5 micron carbon block filters are commonly used to remove cysts such as giardia and cryptosporidium.
What Contaminants Does Carbon (GAC) Remove?
Activated carbon filters remove/reduce many volatile organic chemicals (VOC), pesticides and herbicides, as well as chlorine, benzene, trihalomethane (THM) compounds, radon, solvents and hundreds of other man-made chemicals found in tap water. Some activated carbon filters are moderately effective at removing some, but not all, heavy metals. In addition, densely compacted carbon block filters mechanically remove particles down to 0.5 micron, including Giardia and Cryptosporidium, turbidity and particulates. Also, very little iron or manganese will pass through these higher quality activated carbon filters although a manganese greensand iron reduction filter is generally preferred to remove these contaminants as the effectiveness of carbon filter against iron and manganese is generally short-lived if the contaminant concentration is high.GAC does not remove sediment / particulate material very well, so they are often preceded by a sediment filter. Sediment pre-filters also prolong the activate carbon cartridge life by eliminating gross contaminants that would otherwise clog the activated carbon thereby reducing the surface area available for adsorption.

Bacteria

Bad Tastes
& Odors

Chlorine

Fluoride

Heavy
Metals

Hydrogen Sulfide

Nitrates

Radon

Sediment

Viruses

VOC’s

*

= Effectively Removes         = Significantly Reduces         = Minimal or No Removal

* At high contaminant levels, filter life will be reduced significantly. Manganese greensand (whole house iron reduction filter) or KDF filter is recommended for Hydrogen sulfide.

 

Advantages Disadvantages
  • most effective removal of organic compounds including VOCs, radon, and chlorine (including cancer-causing by-product trihalomethanes)
  • very cost effective
  • GAC – following scheduled filter replacements and reversing of the cartridge is important to eliminate the possibility of “channeling” which reduces the contact between the contaminant and the carbon and therefore reduces efficiency, and the accumulation of bacteria in the filter

 

Products w/ Carbon Filters Typical Maintenance
Virtually all of our home water purification systems include activated carbon block filtration..Note: All Aquatech products use only the bestCoconut carbons. Activated carbon filters require very little maintenance, however, it is very important to ensure that filter replacement schedules are followed to ensure proper filtration at all times. Do not wait for bad tastes and odors to return to the water before deciding the filter needs replacement as this is an indication that the filter is no longer able to completely remove contaminants and that it has surpassed its service life.
Frequently Asked Questions About Activated Carbon Filtration
1. What is Activated Carbon?
Carbon is an extremely porous material that attracts and holds a wide range of harmful contaminants. Activated carbon is carbon which has a slight electro-positive charge added to it, making it even more attractive to chemicals and impurities. As the water passes over the positively charged carbon surface, the negative ions of the contaminants are drawn to the surface of the carbon granules.2. What forms does it come in?
Activated carbon filters used for home water treatment typically contain either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered block carbon (carbon block).3. Which is generally better, GAC or carbon block?
Although both are effective, carbon block filters generally have a higher contaminant removal ratio and are more resistant to channeling. However this is easily overcome by the use of a backwash system on the granular carbon. This will prevent channeling and increase the life span of the carbon.4. Are all carbon filters equally effective?
No. Activated carbon filters are usually rated by the size of particles they are able to remove, measured in microns, and generally range from 20 microns (least effective) down to 0.5 microns (most effective). The two most important factors affecting the efficiency of activated carbon filtration are the amount of activated carbon in the unit and the amount of time the contaminant spends in contact with it. The more carbon the better. Particle size also affects contaminant removal rates. The most common carbon types used in water filtration are bituminous, wood, and coconut shell carbons. While the coconut shell carbon typically costs 20% more, it is generally regarded as the best of the three.

 

3) WATER SOFTENER

*What is a softener?

Softening by ion exchange resin is the most common and probably the easiest method of removing Hardness ( that is calcium and magnesium) from water and render the water suitable for utility Purpose . As the name implies ion exchange is a process in which undesirable ions are exchanged For more desirable ions.

*What problems are caused by hard water?

Hard water does not lather easily with soap. This causes problems during washing and bathing and Prevents proper cleaning. Hard water can also cause scaling in pipes, fittings and storage tanks. Scaling in geysers can increase the electricity consumption bills. Hard water is also bad for the skin and hair.

How Does a Water Softener Work?

A water softener uses a medium that serves to exchange “ions” of calcium and magnesium with sodium and potassium.

This occurs in four steps:

To do the ion replacement, the water in the house runs through a resin bed of small plastic beads or zeolite. The beads are covered with sodium or potassium ions. As the water flows past the ions, they swap places with the calcium and magnesium ions. Eventually, the beads contain nothing but calcium and magnesium, and softening stops. It is then time to regenerate the beads or zeolite.

To regenerate, the beads need to regain their sodium or potassium ions by being flooded with a salty, brine solution that is rich in sodium or potassium.

Once completed, the calcium and magnesium, dirt and sediments are flushed from the beads and into the drain in a process called backwash.

The final phase rinses the mineral tank with fresh water and loads the brine tank so it’s ready for the next cycle.

Automatic water softeners are usually programmed to recharge at specific times that will not disrupt the occupants. It is more water-efficient to have a metered model that will regenerate only when required.

*What is Regeneration of the Softener

Raw water will continue to get softened till the resin gets exhausted. Bringing back the resin to it Original form is called regeneration. Softener resin is regenerated by sodium chloride of 10 – 15 % Concentration. Depending on the softener design, the regeneration may need to be done every day or Every few days or every week and month

2>Product detail:

The water softening plants offered by Aquatech S.A. are used to remove the concentration of contaminants so that water become fit for the desired use. Highly effective in removing the hardness salts and impurities, these plants are manufactured in adherence with set industrial norms. These are known for high performance and longer working life and require very little maintenance. Keeping in mind the requirements of different industries, these plants are available in various technical specifications.

4) ULTRA VIOLET STERILIZATION

Ultraviolet disinfection systems

Ultraviolet disinfection systems are mysterious to many people – how can “light” kill bacteria? But the truth is it can. Ultraviolet (UV) technology has been around for 50 years, and its effectiveness has been well documented both scientifically and commercially. It is nature’s own disinfection/purification method. With consumers becoming more concerned about chlorine and other chemical contamination of drinking water, more dealers are prescribing the ultraviolet solution suitable for both small flow residential applications as well as large flow commercial projects.

Ultraviolet is a means of killing or rendering harmless microorganisms in a dedicated environment. These microorganisms can range from bacteria and viruses to algae and protozoa. UV disinfections is used in air and water purification, sewage treatment protection of food and beverages, and many other disinfections and sterilization applications. A major advantage of UV treatment is that it is capable of disinfecting water faster than chlorine without cumbersome retention tanks and harmful chemicals. UV treatment systems are also extremely cost efficient!

What is UV and how does it work?

Ultraviolet is one energy region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which lies between the x-ray region and the visible region. UV itself lies in the ranges of 200 nanometers (nm) to 390 nanometers (nm). Optimum UV germicidal action occurs at 260 nm.

Since natural germicidal UV from the sun is screened out the earth’s atmosphere, we must look to alternative means of producing UV light. This is accomplished through the conversion of electrical energy in a low-pressure mercury vapor “hard glass” quartz lamp. Electrons flow through the ionized mercury vapor between the electrodes of the lamp, which then creates UV light.

As UV light penetrates through the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, it causes a molecular rearrangement of the microorganism’s DNA, which prevents it from reproducing. If the cell cannot reproduce, it is considered dead.

Advantages of UV Sterilization

Following are the advantages of UV sterilization:
• Environmentally friendly, no dangerous chemicals to handle or store, no problem of overdosing (it’s impossible).
• Low initial capital cost as well as reduced operating expenses when compared with similar technologies such as ozone, chlorine, etc.
• Immediate treatment process, no need for holding tanks, long retention times, etc.
• Extremely economical, hundreds of gallons may be treated for each penny of operating cost.
• No chemicals added to the water supply – no by-products (i.e. chlorine+ organics = trihalomethanes).
• No change in taste, odor, pH or conductivity or the general chemistry of thewater.
• Automatic operation without special attention or measurement, operator friendly.
• Simplicity and ease of maintenance, periodic cleaning (if applicable) and annual lamp replacement, no moving parts to wear out.
• No handling of toxic chemicals, no need for specialized storage requirements, no WHMIS requirements.
• Easy installation, only two water connections and a power connection.
• Compatible with all other water processes (i.e., RO, filtration, ion exchange, etc.)

Factors Affecting UV

Because UV does not leave any measurable residual in the water it is recommended that the UV sterilizer be installed as the final step of treatment and located as close as possible to the final distribution system. Once the quality of your water source has been determined, you will need to look at things that will inhibit the UV from functioning properly (e.g., iron manganese, TDS, turbidity, and suspended solids).

Iron and Manganese will cause staining on the quartz sleeve and prevent the UV energy from transmitting into the water at levels as low as 0.03 ppm of iron and 0.05 ppm of manganese. Proper pretreatment is required to eliminate this staining problem.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) should not exceed approximately 500 ppm. There are many factors that make up this equation such as the particular make-up of the dissolved solids and how fast they absorb the sleeve, again impeding the UV energy from penetrating the water.

Turbidity is the inability of light to travel through water. Turbidity makes water cloudy and aesthetically unpleasant. In the case of UV, levels over 1 NTU can shield microorganisms from the UV energy, making the process ineffective.

Suspended Solids need to be reduced to a maximum of 5 microns in size. Larger solids have the potential of harboring or encompassing the microorganisms and preventing the necessary UV exposure. Pre-filtration is a must on all UV applications to effectively destroy microorganisms to a 99.9% kill rate.

Additional Factors affecting UV is temperature. The optimal operating temperature of a UV lamp must be near 40°C (104°F). UV levels fluctuate with temperature levels. Typically a quartz sleeve is installed to buffer direct lamp-water contact thereby reducing any temperature fluctuations.

UV Applications

One of the most common uses of ultraviolet sterilization is the disinfection of domestic water supplies due to contaminated water sources. Coupled with appropriate pre-treatment equipment, UV provides an economical, efficient and user-friendly means of producing potable water.

The following list shows a few more areas where ultraviolet technology is currently in use:

surface water, laboratories, bottled water plants, ground water, wineries, pharmaceuticals, cisterns, dairies,breweries, farms, electronics, hospitals, hydroponics, aquaria, restaurants, spas, boats and RV’s, vending, canneries, printing, cosmetics, food products, butter processing, bakeries, distilleries, petro chemicals, schools, fish hatcheries, photography, boiler feed water, water softeners, pre- and post-reverse osmosi and much more…

Installation and Maintenance Guidelines

Once the application has been determined, you should find a location that offers easy access for service. You will need to have access to the pre-filters, to the UV chamber for annual lamp changes and regular maintenance on the quartz sleeve. You will want to locate near an electrical outlet. *Note: Using a UV system and a pump on the same electrical line may cause problems with and shorten the life of the UV lamp and ballast. UV units should be installed on the cold water line before any branch lines and should be last point of treatment. All points of the distribution system after the sterilizer must be chemically “shocked” to ensure that the system is free from any downstream microbial contamination. Lamp changes should be done at least once every year. Filter changes are done according to the water quality.

Summary

The need for ultraviolet sterilization products can be found in virtually all areas in both residential and commercial applications alike. Its simplistic design, ease of maintenance and low capital and operating costs make UV the number one choice in contaminated water situations. Health professionals and water specialists are becoming aware of possible side effects of chemical sterilizers and their resultant chemical by-products. Because of its advantages, UV irradiation should become a very popular choice for the disinfection of water supplies in the 21st century.

Next time, purify water “natures way”…use ultraviolet light.

5) ULTRA FILTRATION
Ultra filtration (UF) is a type of membrane filtration in which hydrostatic pressure forces a liquid against a semi permeable membrane. A semi permeable membrane is a thin layer of material capable of separating substances when a driving force is applied across the membrane. Once considered a viable technology only for desalination, membrane processes are increasingly employed for removal of bacteria and other microorganisms, particulate material, and natural organic material, which can impart color, tastes, and odors to the water and react with disinfectants to form disinfection byproducts (DBP). As advancements are made in membrane production and module design, capital and operating costs continue to decline.

Ultra filtration uses hollow fibers of membrane material and the feed water flows either inside the shell, or in the lumen of the fibers. Suspended solids and solutes of high molecular weight are retained, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane. This separation process is used in industry and research for purifying and concentrating macromolecular (103 – 106 Da) solutions, especially protein solutions. Ultra filtration is not fundamentally different from reverse osmosis, microfiltration or Nano filtration, except in terms of the size of the molecules it retains. When strategically combined with other purification technologies in a complete water system, UF is ideal for the removal of colloids, proteins, bacteria, pyrogens, proteins, and macromolecules larger than the membrane pore size from water. The primary removal mechanism is size exclusion, though surface chemistry of the particles or the membrane may affect the purification efficiency. UF can be used as pretreatment for reverse osmosis systems or as a final filtration stage for deionized water.

The primary advantages of low-pressure UF membrane processes compared with conventional clarification and disinfection (post chlorination) processes are:

  • No need for chemicals (coagulants, flocculates, disinfectants, pH adjustment);
  • Size-exclusion filtration as opposed to media depth filtration;
  • Good and constant quality of the treated water in terms of particle and microbial removal;
  • Process and plant compactness; and
  • Simple automation.
6) SAND FILTER

Sand filters use porous filtration medium to retain particles throughout the medium, rather than just on the surface of the medium. These filters are commonly used when the fluid to be filtered contains a high load of particles Relative to other types of filters, they can retain a large mass of particles before becoming clogged.

Sand filters are commonly used in devices with backwash mechanisms.

This allows the user to backwash the medium removing the particles and therefore the medium can be re used over and over. The medium in a sand filter (silica sand) should be replaced every 5 to 7 years.

Silica Sand is the most commonly used medium in sand filters and come in various particle sizes for the removal of different sized particles in water sources

The most popular and effective sand filters make use of automatic backwash and rinse mechanisms that can be set to backwash hourly, daily, every couple of days, weekly, ext.

7) BAG FILTERS

Cartridge Filter vs. Bag Filter

In many filtering applications, a choice between the use cartridge filter or a bag filter has to be made. Both are sediment filters, that is to say they reduce the amount of sediments transported by the fluid trough filtration.

There are some differences between these two filter systems: The choice of cartridge filter depends on the application. Cartridge filters are preferable for systems with contaminations lower than 100 ppm, that is to say with contamination levels lower than 0.01% in weight.

Cartridge filter can be surface or depth-type filter: depth-type filters capture particles and contaminant through the total thickness of the medium, while in surface filters (that are usually made of thin materials like papers, woven wire, cloths) particles are blocked on the surface of the filter.

Surface filters are best if you are filtering sediment of similar-sized particles. If all particles are i.e. five micron, a pleated 5-micron filter works best because it has more surface area than other filters. Compared with pleated surface filters, depth filters have a limited surface area, but they have the advantage of depth. It can be generally stated that if the size of filter surface is increased, higher flows are possible, the filter last longer, and the dirt holding capacity increases. Cartridge filters are normally designed disposable: this means that they have to be replaced when the filter is clogged.

Bag filters are in general frequently used for dust removal in industrial applications. The flow can be from the outside to the inside of the filter (that means, the separation of particles happens on the external surface of the filter) or the other way around, depending on the application. The particles are normally captured on the internal surface of the bag filter.

Bag filters are in general not designed for replacement when they are clogged, but some bag filters for gaseous applications like dust removal can be cleaned, for example by mechanical shaking or by backwashing with compressed air (so called reverse-flow bag filters).

Bag filters are mostly surface-type filters.

– A rule of thumb is that for concentrations higher than 5 mg/m3 a surface filter is favoured, while for concentrations lower than 0.5 mg/m3 a depth-type filter is preferred. In general surface filters can by backwashed and cleaned more easily, while depth-type filters normally have to be disposed when clocked.

Examples of applications:

Cartridge Filter Bag Filter
Liquid Filtration
  • bulk chemicals
  • petrochemicals
  • water purification
  • hydraulic fluids
  • cosmetics/pharmaceuticals
  • reagent grade chemicals
  • paints, varnishes
  • semiconductors
  • sugars
  • electric utilities
  • paints/varnishes
  • often used as final filtration
  • after other filters
  • bulk chemicals
  • food industry (vegetable oils, vinegar)
  • semiconductors
  • coolants
  • cleaning fluids
  • paints
  • varnishes
  • waxes
  • plastisols
Gaseous Filtration
  • i.g. dust removal in industrial atmospheres
  • compressed air filtering: atmospheric dust, smoke, fumes, solid contaminants in the system
  • often used as final filtration after other filters
  • i.g. dust removal form air in industries

Materials

Cartridge filter Bag filter
depends on type of cartridge filter nylonpolypropylenepolyesterporous PTFE film

 

In the following table the compatibility of polypropylene bag filter/cartridge filters at room temperature is listed. Polypropylene is often used as filtering material.

Compatibility

Compatibility

Acids:Acetic acidCarbonic acidCitric acid

Formic acid

Hydrochloric acid

Hydrofluoric acid

Nitric acid

Phosphoric acid

Sulphuric acid

++

++

++

++

++

++

++

++

++

Chlorinated solvents:Carbon tetra fluorideChloroformTrichloroethylene

+

+

+

Alcohols:ButanolEthanolEthylene glycol

Glycerin

Isopropanol

Methanol

++

++

++

++

++

++

Esters:Amyl acetateButyl acetateEthyl acetate

Methyl acetate

++

++

++

++

Alkalis:Ammonium hydroxidePotassium hydroxideSodium hydroxide

++

++

++

Ketones:AcetoneMethlyethyl ketone

+

+

Aromatics:BenzeneTolueneXylene

0

0

0

Oils:Cottonseed oilMineral oil

+

++

Ethers:DioxaneEtherTetrahydrofurane

++

+

+

Other fluids:FormaldehydeGasolineHexane

JP-4

Kerosene

Mineral spirits

Phenol

Pyridine

Turpentine

Varnish

++

+

+

++

++

++

++

+

+

+

Compatible in most situations: ++Limited compatibility, testing is suggested: +Generally not compatible, testing is suggested: 0

Source: Filters and Filtration Handbook, 3rd edition, Christopher Dickenson, Elsevier Advanced Technology

– Filtration rate:

Bag filters are in general designed for applications with a desired filtration rate from 1 to 1000 micron.

Cartridge filters have a filtration rate from 0.1 up to 500 micron.

In both cases distinction between absolute and nominal filtration rate should be made:

The absolute filtration rate indicates the maximum size of a particle that can pass through the filtration unit.

The nominal filtration rate indicates that a certain percentage of material, bigger than the nominal filter rating will be able to pass through the filter. The % efficiency rating (e.g. 98 %) of the nominal filtration rate indicates the amount of larger particles that will be blocked by the filter.

The beta ratio is a mathematical expression that indicates the ration between the number of particles of a given size entering and leaving the filtration unit.

The Beta Ratio is defined as follows:

Beta (x) = Number of particles > size (x) upstream / Number of particles > size (x) downstream
[Where x = particle size in microns]

The beta ratio indicates how good a filter works: if one out of every three of the particles (>xµm) in the fluid pass through the filter, the filter’s Beta ratio at xµm is “3.” If only one out of every 300 of the particles (>xµm) pass through the filter, the Beta ratio at xµm is “300.” Therefore, filters with a higher Beta ratio provide better particulate control and hence better system protection.

– Pressure drop over filter:

When a flow passes through a filter, a certain pressure drop occurs. This pressure drop depends on the filter media, the filter housing and the flow.

An increasing pressure drop over the filter indicates that the filter has to be replaced: When a filter is nearly clocked, pressure drop higher than in a new, clean filter.

This replacement pressure drop differs from system to system, and is dependent on the filter media.

8) OZONATION

OZONE: WHAT IS IT?

Ozone (O3), one of nature’s basic elements, is a very powerful disinfecting and deodorizing gas consisting of oxygen (O2) with an extra oxygen atom attached, therefore becoming ozone (O3). When oxygen in the air is exposed to high intensity ultraviolet rays, ozone is created (such as our sun creating the ozone layer). When ozone does it’s job, it oxidizes by giving up and attaching it’s extra oxygen atom to anything that can be oxidized. Once this process occurs, the ozone molecule becomes oxygen (O3 – O = O2). Thus, the only by-product of ozone is pure oxygen. In fact, ozone reverts to pure oxygen quite rapidly and naturally: The half life of ozone in air is on the order of hours and on the order of minutes when dissolved in water. Additionally, ozone dissolves over 12 times more readily into water than pure oxygen, then reverts to oxygen, providing hundreds of times more dissolved oxygen in your water than could otherwise be possible. This high oxygen content of your water provides many of the benefits made possible with the Triple O system.

THE BENEFITS OF OZONE:

Municipal water companies have used ozone technology to treat large quantities of water for many years because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water.
Triple O Systems has selected ozone technology for use in treating well/tank water because of its unique properties to:

  • Kill bacteria on contact thousands of times faster than chlorine or bromine.
  • Kill virus on contact.
  • Kill algae spores, fungus, mold and yeast spores.
  • Precipitate heavy metals.
  • Remove excess iron, manganese, and sulfur by a process known as micro-flocculation, thus conditioning the water naturally without chemical additives.
  • Remove color and odor, leaving a fresh, healthy bouquet.
  • Reduce scale build-up on equipment such as pipes and water heaters, and staining of showers, sinks, bathtubs and toilets .

Ozone leaves no residue, it’s only by-product is pure oxygen.

9) WATERPHOS

Description coming soon…

10) CLEAR FLOW

Clear flow anti-scale systems

Clear flow is a scale control technology designed to protect complete plumbing systems or individual components from the negative effects of water hardness. Clear flow requires virtually no maintenance, no backwashing, no salt and no electricity.

“Hard” Scale vs. “Soft” Scale

Clear flow prevents what is called “hard” scale, the destructive scale that sticks to pipes, valves and other system components. It does this by transforming dissolved hardness minerals into harmless, inactive microscopic “soft” scale crystal particles. “Soft” scale particles stay suspended in the water and flow freely through a system, unable to stick to plumbing imperfections. Most importantly, unlike “hard” scale, “soft” scale particles can easily be washed and wiped away without the use of caustic chemicals.

Template Assisted Crystallization (T.A.C.)

The clear flow media uses template assisted crystallization to attract hardness minerals and convert them into harmless “soft” scale particles that do not stick to pipes and components. Each bead is covered with imperfections called templates that attract these minerals and combine them to form micro-crystals that then break off and float freely through the system.

Why Clear flow

Clear flow is not a water softener. It does not add chemicals or remove any minerals. It is a scale prevention device with proven third party laboratory test data and successful use in real world commercial applications.

Features

  • No salt or chemicals required
  • Economical and efficient
  • Up flow design for better flow rates
  • No backwashing and zero discharge
  • Virtually maintenance free
  • Consistent scale control performance
  • Wide-range of commercial applications
  • Uses environmentally friendly “green” technology
  • Long-lasting media needs no regeneration
11) ALKALINE WATER BENEFITS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST DISEASE

Alkaline Water Benefits in the Fight Against Disease

Cancer is a disease that many of us are afraid of. It is something that many people get and kills lots of them. Although the treatment is improving, there are still many types of cancer that cannot be cured. There are lifestyle factors that are sometimes attributed to some types of the disease but it is still not known exactly what could prevent it or cure it. There is a lot of research going on and different types of cancer have different success rates. The latest thing that is trending online, that is being recommended for cancer prevention and treatment is alkaline water. There are a lot of reports stating that it is extremely good, but there is not a lot of evidence yet as it is a relatively new and many studies is still being conducted.

Anti-Oxidants

Alkaline water benefits  are immense, to start it  is an anti-oxidant. This means that it has the ability to neutralise free radicals, which are the very things that are thought to cause cancer. They help the cancer cells to get more oxygen, which is exactly what they do not need and their growth will be slowed or stopped. There are many sources of anti-oxidants and people do tend to try the ones that are felt to be the best. With water being something that is healthy for many things, then drinking alkaline water is seen as something that has many health benefits and therefore a good way to get the necessary anti-oxidants.

Electrons

The alkaline water will give electrons to the oxygen that is in the body. This means those oxygen cells are available to the cancer because of the electrons and they will not be able to thrive so well. So as well as being able to neutralise free radicals in itself, the water will enable other cells in the body to be able to do so as well.

Alkaline

Cancer cells do not thrive in an alkaline environment. However, there are some foods that we eat that are acidic, these include sugar, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine and therefore having these in the body could lead to problems if nothing is done. There could be a more acidic environment in the body, which could lead to a higher chance of cancer. This means that if you can drink alkaline water then this may give you a better chance against cancer as the alkaline properties could help to neutralise the acid in the system.

How much alkaline water should I drink

Drinking alkaline water in large quantities, 2/3 litre a day, helps to detoxify the body, and to incorporate the necessary alkaline elements that makes your body alkaline and brings you back to health

In the case of alkaline water that is produced from natural elements there is no problem in drinking it. Since the alkalinity in the Alkaline Plus is a result of natural minerals such as magnesium and calcium, the body is capable of using these minerals if needs and discarding any excess.